Sharing data in the process of collective activities often led to serious negative consequences. To solve this problem, we began to develop complexes of various information technologies with general data aimed at developing uniform methods of application of these technologies that are effective for organizations and processes. The main way to solve this problem was the integration of information technologies on the basis of ensuring the communication compatibility of individual software tools. For this purpose, in particular, special programs were created that convert data from one storage format to another (converters).
At the same time, a single integrating environment was created, which used operating shells and local networks. To work in this environment, all application programs are developed in accordance with certain specifications, which allows you to standardize the way information is exchanged between different applications.
For the operation of such integrated information networks, special network technical means are used that ensure interaction both within the local network and several information networks or subnets. These include:
– Access servers;
– network adapters, repeaters, switches, concentrators, multiplexers, bridges, routers, gateways and modems, which coordinate the operation of computers with data channels.
The use of open information systems designed to use the entire array of information currently available to society in a certain sphere allows it to improve the mechanisms of managing the social structure, promote the democratization of society, and increase the welfare of its members. The processes taking place in connection with the informatization of society contribute not only to the acceleration of scientific and technological progress, the intellectualization of all types of human activity, but also to the creation of a qualitatively new information environment.
In the conditions of the development of modern society, information technologies deeply penetrate people’s lives. They very quickly turned into a vital stimulus for the development not only of the world economy, but also of other spheres of human activity. It is now difficult to find a sphere in which information technology is not used now. So, in the industry, information technologies are used not only to analyze stocks of raw materials, components, finished products, but also allow marketing research to be carried out to forecast the demand for different types of products, find new partners and much more.
At the same time, all accounting operations at enterprises and not only are now based on the use of information technology. As you know, the effectiveness of public administration largely depends on the level of interaction between citizens, enterprises and other government bodies. Therefore, in the government, information technologies make it possible to simultaneously use information, organizational, legal, socio-psychological, personnel and other factors, which greatly facilitates the robot and the organization of the management process itself. It is difficult to overestimate the application of information technologies in the scientific sphere and in the field of education. Now it’s hard to imagine a school that does not have a computer class. Now there are a lot of electronic libraries that can be used without leaving home, which greatly facilitates the process of learning and self-education. At the same time, information technology contributes to the development of scientific knowledge.
As the speed of information exchange increases and it becomes possible to conduct complex mathematical calculations in a few seconds and much more. Information technology is one of the modern ways of communication, the main advantages of which are accessibility. Using information technology, you can easily access the information you are interested in, as well as communicate with a living person.
In the broad sense of the term “corporate information systems” – CIS is considered as a common set of functional as well as providing subsystems typical for economic information systems (hereinafter simply EIS). In a more narrow sense, corporate systems are called software, the implementation of which allows for the comprehensive automation of enterprise activities (for example, Galaxy, AVACCO, R/3).
One of the main properties of EIS is the divisibility into subsystems, which has a number of advantages in terms of the development and operation of EIS, which include:
1. Simplification of the development and modernization of EIS as a result of the specialization of design teams by subsystems.
2. Simplification of the introduction and delivery of ready subsystems in accordance with the order of execution of work.
3. Simplify the operation of EIS due to the specialization of employees in the domain.
In the practice of enterprise automation, the concept of EIS is used in two aspects: in the first aspect, EIS is considered as a software complex designed to solve various economic and management problems; in the second aspect, EIS is considered more widely. At the same time, as part of the EIS, many subsystems are distinguished, which are divided into two large groups: functional subsystems and providing subsystems.
Functional subsystems of EIS are used to service certain types of enterprise activities. The subsystems providing information, technical, mathematical, software, organizational, legal, and also linguistic support belong to the group of providing subsystems.
Functional testing is a process whose purpose is to make sure that the program works and functions correctly, that is, in accordance with the specification.
It is impossible to be sure of the 100% quality of the application before testing the functional requirements. Therefore, functional testing is widely used to ensure product quality. This means that applications must be subjected to serious functional testing before they reach customers. Such a measure is necessary to make sure that the functions work correctly. In addition, functional testing should be conducted after system testing and before acceptance testing.
Functional testing is a mandatory process in the life cycle of development, one of the types of testing that is aimed at checking the correctness of functional requirements taking into account the real property of the product. The main goal of functional testing is to prove that the developed software has all the functionality that is important for the user.
Functional testing provides the enterprise with the correct operation of their software. Evaluation of program requirements is the initial stage of functional testing, followed by a clear plan that coordinates the objectives of functional testing with general business objectives.
When we start working with the program, we expect that it will perform the tasks for which it is intended. Functional testing is performed to check how far the final product meets the technical specification, and also to make sure that all functions work correctly and that the program does not contain errors.
Functional testing, like any other type of testing, is performed to make the product easier to use, and to prevent errors. To conduct the testing, the quality control department prepares a diagram and a scenario describing all the steps that confirm compliance with the requirements of the final product. In order to ensure maximum reliability, the most frequently used functions are analyzed, and the order in which the average user applies them is also analyzed. Functional testing is performed immediately after the configuration of the functional and ends when each part of the configuration operates in accordance with the requirements.
Functional testing is designed to show that the automated workstations of the information system provide users with exactly the functionality that they expect from it. The system performs its functions correctly.