Sharing data in the process of collective activities often led to serious negative consequences. To solve this problem, we began to develop complexes of various information technologies with general data aimed at developing uniform methods of application of these technologies that are effective for organizations and processes. The main way to solve this problem was the integration of information technologies on the basis of ensuring the communication compatibility of individual software tools. For this purpose, in particular, special programs were created that convert data from one storage format to another (converters).
At the same time, a single integrating environment was created, which used operating shells and local networks. To work in this environment, all application programs are developed in accordance with certain specifications, which allows you to standardize the way information is exchanged between different applications.
For the operation of such integrated information networks, special network technical means are used that ensure interaction both within the local network and several information networks or subnets. These include:
– Access servers;
– network adapters, repeaters, switches, concentrators, multiplexers, bridges, routers, gateways and modems, which coordinate the operation of computers with data channels.
The use of open information systems designed to use the entire array of information currently available to society in a certain sphere allows it to improve the mechanisms of managing the social structure, promote the democratization of society, and increase the welfare of its members. The processes taking place in connection with the informatization of society contribute not only to the acceleration of scientific and technological progress, the intellectualization of all types of human activity, but also to the creation of a qualitatively new information environment.